How to Read a VPAT

AccessibilityOz’s CEO​ Gian Wild takes you through reading a Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT).

Video transcript
Recorded on August 5, 2019.

How to Test the Accessibility of Your Mobile Websites and Apps

AccessibilityOz’s CEO​ Gian Wild takes you through the processes and methodologies involved in testing mobile websites and apps.

Video transcript

Recorded on June 25, 2019.

Video player (in)accessibility

AccessibilityOz’s CEO​ Gian Wild reviews 37 video players for accessibility compliance.

Recorded for 3PlayMedia on November 29, 2017.

Implementing Accessible Workplace Tech: PDF Accessibility

AccessibilityOz’s CEO​ Gian Wild and Rob Haverty, Senior Program Manager at Adobe explore the accessibility challenges related to PDFs. Topics include how to handle issues such as an existing archive of untagged PDFs on a website.

Recorded for PEATworks on March 23, 2017.

Mobile site accessibility: the good, the bad and the ugly

Gian Wild looks at mobile web sites, mobile apps and desktop sites on a mobile device and shows you what can go wrong, as well as what can go right.

Co-hosted by the Chicago Digital Accessibility & Inclusive Design meetup

Implementing Accessible Workplace Tech: Videos and Accessibility

Video accessibility requires more than simply providing transcripts, captions and audio descriptions. AccessibilityOz’s CEO Gian Wild for a detailed demonstration, discussion, and Q&A about how to make videos accessible to people with disabilities.

Recorded for PEATworks January 26, 2017.

Implementing Accessible Workplace Tech: Website Images

Images are used on websites for many different functions, and each require a different approach for accessibility. In this webinar Gian Wild discusses how to ensure your images are both accessible and usable for people with disabilities.

Recorded for PEATworks December 15, 2016

Implementing Accessible Workplace Tech: Creating Accessible Tables for the Web

In order to ensure that your eRecruiting materials and other website content is accessible, it’s essential that your website include properly formatted tables. In this webinar, Gian Wild of Accessibility Oz provides a hands-on demonstration of coding and sequence requirements for both data tables and layout tables, and the easy way to determine the difference between table types.

Recorded for PEATworks November 9, 2016.

Presentation to the University of Montana’s Accessibility Interest Group

Gian Wild’s presentation on the OzWiki Interactive Maps Factsheet on February 4, 2017.

Gian’s Accessibility Workshop presented at the City of Boroondara council in 2015

AccessibilityOz's Transcript:
My name is Gian Wild. I’m the Director/CEO/Founder/Owner of AccessibilityOz. We’re going to talk about what accessibility is, what kind of people with disabilities that are assisted by an accessible site, how you actually make a site accessible. You know, the requirements that you follow. And then we’re going to move into talking about PDFs in accessibility and some of the unique problems there. A lot of people think when it comes to web accessibility, it’s just about vision impairments. When you’re talking about people in Australia, it’s about 300,000 Australians with some moderate to severe vision impairment. There’s 2 million Australians with cognitive or writing disabilities and that’s not necessarily an intellectual disability, it’s difficulty at reading, like, dyslexia or things like that. So, it is important when it comes to web accessibility to think about all different groups, people with disabilities. So, what is online accessibility? It’s the ability for a person with a disability to understand and use a website application, internet or program. It’s governed by the Australian Human Rights Commission Disability Discrimination Act. It allows people with disabilities to access information like anybody else. It also allows them to interact with others without being categorized as disabled. So, this is the really big– a big one there’s still a whole level of discrimination against people with disabilities. So it’s– it’s really important that, you know, people can especially with the advert of social networking that people can represent themselves the way that they want to be represented and not necessarily be, you know, seen as disabled. So, what types of people with disabilities are actually assisted by an accessible website? So we’re talking about disabilities affecting vision, disabilities affecting how the mind interprets information, disabilities affecting movement, and disabilities affecting hearing. So we’re talking about vision impairments. There are a variety of vision impairments from complete blindness, colorblindness is not defined as a disability but certainly affected by an accessible website. Glaucoma cataract, so there’s a whole bunch of different things. It’s not just about being blind. They use things like screen readers which read aloud the content on the page and that work kind of like a browser. So they actually interpret the content, the card or Braille readers. Things like braille keyboards or large-sized cable and on screen magnifiers. We’re going to talk a little bit about cognitive impairments, so cognitive disabilities include things like epilepsy and migraine which I’ve talked about before. Dyslexia which is all about difficulty reading content. Aphasia which is kind of a problem with at home, problems of memory that one of the things that people with dyslexia or people with cognitive reading impairments. One of the technologies they use, our screen readers which reads aloud the content of the page. Now, they obviously use screen readers very differently to people with vision impairments because they can actually save the page. So there’s a whole bunch of accessibility requirements around that. as well where the screen reader actually has to follow the logical order of the visual order of the page because people with dyslexia are actually can actually see the page and they are expecting the screen reader to follow the logical order. And so you need to make sure once again that your site works with those kind of softwares so that they can be used and theses things like have a Hover Highlighting which is often used in conjunction with a screen reader where you actually highlight the word as it’s being said. So it just reinforces exactly where you are on the page and dictionary software where you can actually get a definition of, you know, all the words in your site. Use the techniques things like turning a Flash and Javascript and decreasing color contrast so you will remember that people with vision impairment is like to increase color contrast, but people with cognitive impairments especially dyslexics like to decrease color contrast. It makes it easier to read for some reason. Okay. So physical disabilities. So, it doesn’t really matter what kind of physical disability you have whether it’s cerebral palsy, motor neuron disease, huntington’s, parkinson’s, quadriplegia. All of that means that you have some difficulty with input devices, and input devices, the mouse, you know, touching a touch screen, keyboard. You know, wands, that kind of stuff. Modified on screen keyboards which they can use with things like switches, touchscreens and headwands. There’s a whole bunch of access technologies but basically one of the ways that we make sure these things work for people with physical disabilities, is make sure that everything can be used just by the mouse. Everything can be used just by the keyboard and everything can be used just by touch. And of course when it comes to mobile devices, it gets even more complicated. Often, most of the time things are fully accessible by touch but not all the time, unfortunately. It’s a whole lot of things that the web can you for all of us. But what it means to people with disabilities, is it means that they can actually do things that they could not do before. And so that’s why I personally care about accessibility so much because I think that it’s really adding insult to injury to have this all disability and all this knowledge and information and access to content and then not have it available to people who can’t actually access that information any other way. There’s two types of hearing impairments, this what’s called Profound Deafness. Just people who are born deaf and there’s a really big deaf community, then there is Hard of Hearing so, you know, your grandparents when they get older, you know, they start losing their hearing and things like that. Captioning for example, Netflix, so anyone not know what Netflix is. So it’s a streaming television service. It’s a bit like Foxtel but you choose what you want to watch when you want to watch it. They argued when they attack in court that they couldn’t provide captions because they would be breaking copyright laws even though there was captions for old days, you know, TV shows and things already. They were the judge found against them and fined them $795,000 and required that they caption all their content within two years which they did actually manage to do. So this whole thing– whole list of things and then it says anything that is not listed is also covered. The DDA applies to services where are provided for impairment or not. Making sure accessible web content is an integral part of the web design cycle and accessibility should be incorporated in all aspects of the design process. So all the striding government websites should comply the time line and conformance requirements of the National Transition Strategy whether or not they are specifically mandated to do so. In particular state and territory governments are strongly encouraged to comply with the Double A conformance level that applies to most government Websites. Users must be able to operate with the user interface and navigational aspects of website. One implication of this principle is that interaction with web content should not depend on a user being able to use a physical mouse. The users must be able to understand both the information content and how to interact with that. One implication of this principle is that changes of content or context must not be triggered unexpectedly, for example through the use focus trenches. Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents including assistive technologies. One implication of this principle is that a web page should not require the use of a specific assistive technology such as a specific screen reader in order to be accessible. So there are four principles and on each principle there are a bunch of guidelines. So under the Perceivable Principle, there is guideline 1.1, provide text alternatives for any non-text content, so that it can be changed into other forms people made such as large print, Braille, speech, symbols or simpler language. That’s quite broad. You wouldn’t know necessarily how to do that. There are three conformance levels. Level A, which is the minimum level. Double A, which is the medium level. And Triple A, which is the maximum level. Conformance and conformance level is for full web pages only, and cannot be achieved if part of a web page is excluded. The other thing is that, on the complete processes can be determined as accessible. So, if you’ve got an online store and your credit card form is inaccessible then your entire site is exchange inaccessible because the process itself that you’re expected to type by accessing that site is not accessible. What’s better for your brand? You know, you click a PDF, you wait and you wait and then you get something that looks like that. I mean that’s not friendly on a mobile device at all versus something that loads immediately and you can read. So, PDFs are not rate as highly by Google as such G-mail. So you got two exactly same content. One is PDF, one is HTML The HTML would ranked much higher. We’re not really looking at documents anymore. We’re managing to scrape pieces of open data and content which can be tagged, shared secured, mashed up, and presented in the way that is most useful for the consumer of that information. We did a whole bunch of user testing when we’re at Monash University so I focused a lot more on usability than I did on accessibility and the number of times we’d get to a PDF and that the size, although they say that click to PDF and that immediately click back because they knew that they didn’t want to go through that PDF to find the content or they sat there and waited for it to load. And I can tell you now PDFs still take long to load. Burned our sites actually were quite good and a lot of ways. And PDFs, no one really gets PDFs fully right. Look at those PDFs that you’re legally required provide to the public, popular and downloaded often, and are required to access your products or services. So for example, if you have– if your only way of your stuff applying for leave is through filling out a PDF. That’s a problem. So if you can find the alternative accessible version, so remember they’re not created in PDF. There has to be a version that was the source of the PDF file, then create the alternative accessible version. So HTML word text or RTF, you can take a PDF and create an accessible word document from each. So even if you don’t have the original version, it’s a whole lot easier to create an accessible word document from a PDF than it is to tag it. So we did some work for top of employment and education. We had two 40 page documents. It took me four hours to create the accessible word documents for those documents. Those PDFs. Took me 84 hours to tag the two documents. The more people understand that if I get a complaint from someone who says I can’t use this PDF, they don’t just, you know, push this aside and say that they just don’t know how to use it. But it’s actually got something to do with the fact the content is locked up in an inaccessible format. Then the more that we can actually address this and the more people can use in their site. But, yeah, if you can from now on whenever you upload a PDF, upload the word document or even if you can’t do that, have some kind of summary information but something else some way of people contacting you so that if that contact says that, they can at least tell you and then you can say, “Look, you can go to your manager and say I’ve had 300 requests for accessible PDFs in the last two weeks.” You know, maybe we need to do something about this. Well thank you very much. Once again that’s, our URL is. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions and I’ll probably be working further with City of Boroondara. Excellent. Thank you very much.

Gian’s presentation on Accessibility Laws presented at the City of Boroondara council in 2015

AccessibilityOz's Transcript:
Ok so let’s have a talk about law now. I’m going to read this loud to you because as I said 20 percent of the population has a disability. There will will be people in this room that have disabilities and some of those disabilities might be, not be able to write the screen. Individuals and organizations providing information and services via the worldwide web need to think about how they make their Web sites and other web resources accessible to people with disability. One in five Australians has a disability and the proportion is growing. The proportion is growing because the older you are the more likely you are to acquire a disability. And we have an aging population. The full and independent participation by people with a disability in web based communication and online information delivery not only makes good business and marketing sense, but is also consistent with our society’s obligations to remove discrimination and promote human rights. The provision of information and online services through the web is a service covered by the DDA, the Disability Discrimination Act. Equal access for people with disability in this area is required by the DDA where it can reasonably be provided. This requirement applies to any individual organization developing a web site or other web resources in Australia, while placing or maintaining a web resource on an Australian server. Now the term reasonably be provided is known as the unjustifiable hardship clause. So if you can prove that it will be unjustifiably hard for you to make your site accessible, then you don’t need to do it. Unfortunately or fortunately the unjustifiable hardship clause does not apply to government sites and — is seen as a government site. The other thing is that money cannot be used as a term of unjustifiable hardship. So it’s really for you Joe Blogg’s fish and chips shop that pays someone $200 to build their website and they’re never going to touch it again. In terms of the organization developing web site or other web results in Australia or placing or maintaining Web resource on an Australian server, I spent 5 years as the manager of usability and accessibility services at Monash University and they came to me and said “well we’ve got a South African campus. That South African campus has a South African Web site, the developers are all South African. It’s all maintained in South Africa, does it need to meet Australian accessibility requirements?” And the decision by myself and the solicitor was that yes it did because Monash University was an Australian institution. This includes web pages and other resources developed or maintained for purposes related to employment, education, provisional services including professional services etc etc. So it lists a whole bunch of services or administration of Commonwealth laws and programs. All these areas specifically covered by DDA. Provision of any other information or other goods, services, or facilities through the Internet is in itself a service and as such discrimination in the provision of this service is covered by the DDA. So it lists the whole thing– whole list of things and then it says anything that is not listed is also covered. So they talked about making sure accessible web content is an integral part of the web design cycle and accessibility should be incorporated in all aspects of the design process. So one of the things we are doing with city Belbin for example they’re coming up with a new Web site and we’re trying the developers that we’re reviewing designs and they’ve got an agile process as well. You know we’re sort of testing us as they need us to. While the Australian government has primary responsibility for making a Australians’ obligations, Australia’s obligations under the convention, all sections of society including industry, educational, institutions, and community organizations must play an active role in upholding the rights established by the convention. Accordingly any failure to provide full access to the Web and other Internet based technologies for people with disability may be seen as a violation of human rights. There are wide variations in the accessibility of different file formats and some formats generally considered to be more suited to a particular type of content than others. Feedback that the commission has received from users and web accessibility experts suggest that traditional HTML is the most universally accessible format. So more accessible than Word. Definitely more accessible than PDF. Other formats have advantages and disadvantages. That should be considered when deciding which format to use. For example the Atiyyah format is considered to be more generic but it is less suited than Microsoft Office Word to representing complex tables so that they can be navigated successfully by screen reading software. In general, material will be accessible to the greatest number of users when it is published in multiple accessible formats. It should also brought in mind that some content cannot be made accessible online to some people with a disability especially if it is inherently graphical in nature. Organizations that make such content available online need to consider strategies for making it accessible for example by providing text descriptions of pictorial content or using qualified contractors to produce textual maps and diagrams on request and some file formats provide mechanisms for enhancing the security of documents by preventing unauthorized editing, copying, or printing. So if there are concerns about ensuring the authenticity of material published on the web in multiple formats then a statement should be included that specifies which format is to be regarded as definitive or authorized and noting that additional formats are being provided to maximize access. They also talk about how it should be emphasized however that accessibility of web content cannot always be achieved solely through a compliance. In addition to these guidelines web designers and authors will need to make themselves familiar with a range of tools, resources, and emerging best practice solutions as they make their accessibility goals and responsibilities under the DDA and the convention. This is particularly the case in areas that are not comprehensively addressed and we can’t to, such as the needs of people with cognitive abilities. So in terms of the accessibility specialists the commission strongly encourages web designers to use expert advice and information that is up to date with web content publishing and access challenges and solutions. A number of Australian companies and organizations provide consultancy and design services with specialization and accessibility. There is currently no national accreditation system for expertise in this area so potential clients of such services should use standard assessment practices such as making with referees and examining samples of work. There are 10 common accessibility failures. In this–with these web advisory nights. Basically the most serious accessibility problems. So if you’re looking at a Web site and you don’t have a lot of time or resources, these are the things you need to make sure you get right. So failures to include appropriate text descriptions for images, failure to provide accessible alternatives when using a visual Captcha. Anyone not know what a captcha is? So a captcha is you know you’ve got a form, and then it’s got a little box with some squiggly text and it says write down what the text is. The whole point of that is to stop robots from submitting the form. They are not accessible. So you have to provide an audio file with the captcha as well. Failure to use technology such slashing javascript in ways that are accessible, failure to use HTML features appropriately to indicate content structures such as the hierarchy of headings. Failure to basically code your forms properly. Failure to ensure sufficient difference between full ground, text color and background color. Failure to code data tables with summary and caption and mark them up properly and failure to provide a way for users to disable content such as advertisements from flashing rapidly because they can trigger epileptic attacks. And failure to provide a way for users to stop a page from auto refreshing. Failure to ensure that web pages can be used from a cable without a mouse. And failure to alert users to changes on a web page that are triggered automatically when selecting items from a dropdown menu. So they are the 10 most serious ones. They’re worth handing over to developers as well. Sorry all Australian government websites should compile the timeline and conformance requirements of the national transition strategy. Whether or not they specifically mandated to do so. In particular state and territory governments are strongly encouraged to comply with the double “A” conformance level that applies to most government websites which I will talk about in a moment. Sorry. Basically accessibility has been a requirement since 2000 but compliance with we had to which is the second version of the guidelines has been required since 2010.

Prioritising accessibility in the build of a web site

Gian Wild’s presentation at DrupalGov 2014 on how to build an accessible web site.

Keynote Presentation – The differences between WCAG1.0 and WCAG2.0

WCAG2.0 has now been endorsed by federal, state and local Government, the time has come to learn all about the new guidelines, and how they differ from WCAG1.0. Gian Wild will talk about WCAG2.0 and the main differences between this new set of guidelines and WCAG1, such as CAPTCHA, captions, ALT attributes, skip links, validation, keyboard operability and audio control.

This was a keynote presentation given at Drupal Downunder Melbourne 2012.

Making your website accessible

This presentation by Gian Wild will provides you with advice on making your website accessible – using case studies from the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, State Library NSW and Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games and highlighting the pitfalls and solutions along the way.

Social Media and Accessibility

Social media is a very important method of communication in the Information Age, especially for those with disabilities who may be limited in their ability to travel, use traditional telecommunication options or be restricted from attending social events in person. This session by presented by Gian Wild explores several different accessible ways that users with disabilities interact with various social media services so you can learn best practices for posting image and other visual content so that it doesn’t unintentionally exclude users.

Recorded at the Great Lakes ADA Center on October 20, 2015.